Tax Reform Toolkit

Over the past few decades, the U.S. tax code has become a significant obstacle to economic growth, job creation and higher wages for American workers.

President Donald Trump, Speaker Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell made it clear before the November 2016 election that pro-growth tax reform would be a major legislative priority for Republicans in 2017 if they were given the chance to govern. Now that the American people gave Republicans control of the House, Senate and White House, there is a real opportunity to achieve comprehensive, pro-growth tax reform.

A rewrite of the tax code couldn’t come soon enough. It has been far too long since Congress made major updates to the tax code. In fact, the last major reform of our nation’s tax code was under the Reagan administration in 1986, and every major effort since then has failed. After three decades of no major changes to the tax code and a stagnant economy, the time for tax reform is now.

Key Talking Points:

Our tax code currently:

  • Suppresses American business creation and growth. Our high corporate tax rate is a problem for American businesses. The U.S. corporate tax rate of 39.1 percent is the highest rate in the world and reduces domestic investment.  
  • Is far too complex for the average citizen. The individual tax system is a problem for families. In 1913, the tax code was a reasonable 400 pages long, but by 2013 it grew to over 74,000 pages. Americans spend nearly 9 billion hours complying with the tax code every year.
  • Is full of special interests. Pervasive cronyism in our tax code hurts entrepreneurs and consumers. Over decades, Congress has enacted policies that manipulate the marketplace to benefit certain business or industries.

Accordingly, tax reform should include the following principles:

  • Lower and simplify individual tax rates. Tax reforms should aim to improve the simplicity and transparency of paying taxes. Lowering overall rates will allow families and hard working Americans to keep more of their earnings.
  • Lower the corporate tax rate. Congress should lower the corporate tax rate to encourage growth and investment.
  • Permit tax free entrepreneurship: Businesses should be permitted to deduct the full cost of their capital expenses when they incur them, known as expensing, rather than over many years using cumbersome depreciation schedules currently in effect.
  • Establish a territorial tax system. High U.S. tax rates reduce domestic investment by both U.S. headquartered business and foreign businesses, stifling job creation and wage growth.
  • End cronyism. Tax reform should explicitly seek to abolish policies that Congress intended to benefit particular industries or particular groups.

(Make sure to insert the Twitter handle of your Representative)

  • Click to tweet: @MEMBER it’s time for Congress to pass #ProGrowth policies and #TaxReform that allows America to prosper
  • Click to tweet: @MEMBER Americans need #taxreform that levels the playing field and ends special interest handouts. #ProGrowth
  • Click to tweet: @MEMBER tax laws should not favor the well-connected over hard-working taxpayers #TaxReform
  • Click to tweet: @MEMBER our high U.S. corporate tax rates are making American companies uncompetitive. #TaxReform should lower rates.
  • Click to tweet: @MEMBER #ProGrowth #TaxReform should stand up to special interests and serve American taxpayers

General Tweets:

  • Click to tweet: It’s been too long since Congress passed meaningful #TaxReform. The time is now to push forward #ProGrowth policies
  • Click to tweet: #TaxReform could bring back more than $2.6 trillion in profits currently locked out of the U.S.
  • Click to tweet: #ProGrowth #TaxReform would encourage new business investment, job creation and wage growth
  • Click to tweet: Americans spend nearly 9 billion hours complying with the tax code every year, we need to simplify tax code #TaxReform
  • Click to tweet: True #TaxReform must be fair for all hardworking Americans. No more special interest handouts!

These are notes to use when calling your member of Congress. You can find their phone number on the Heritage Action Dashboard.

Hi, I’m [NAME] from [STATE].

It is my understanding that Congress is expected to consider tax reform legislation in the coming months. This effort is long overdue and presents a real opportunity to rewrite tax laws that are currently holding American business back, allowing IRS bureaucrats to pick ‘winners and losers,’ and enabling cronyism to pervade Washington.

Americans should not be burdened to comply with a tax code that is far too complex for the average citizen. By the same token, it is unacceptable that the tax code has been deliberately made more complex by lobbyists to benefit big business, big labor, and big government interests.

America needs tax reform. Reform should provide common sense solutions to the problems facing individual Americans – studies show that Americans spend nearly 9 billion hours complying with the tax code every year, costing our economy over $400 billion in foregone economic growth.

More importantly, business tax reforms are necessary to grow the economy and spur job creation – at an average of 39.1 percent, the U.S. corporate tax rate is the highest in the industrialized world. This rate, combined with the inability of businesses to fully deduct their cost of new capital investment, makes American companies uncompetitive with their foreign counterparts.  

Please tell the Congressman to be aware of these issues when reforming the tax code. Above all, I expect Congressman [NAME] to stand up to special interests and serve American taxpayers and [his/her] constituents. It is time to reform outdated tax laws with a principled approach – to end cronyism, simplify our tax code, and support American business with pro-growth policies.

Below is a sample letter to the editor. We encourage you to adapt and personalize the letter below. Heritage Action Regional Coordinators are always here to help edit your letter and get it published.

Congressman [X],

Today, we have an anti-growth, complex and out-of-date tax code. President Donald Trump, Speaker Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell made it clear before the November 2016 election that pro-growth tax reform would be a major legislative priority for Republicans in 2017 if they were given the chance to govern.  

Our tax code currently suppresses American business growth, is far too complex for the average citizen, and is full of cronyism. Accordingly, I encourage [you] to stick to the following principles on tax reform: lower and simplify individual tax rates, lower the corporate tax rate, permit “full expensing,” establish a territorial tax system, and end cronyism.

The American people gave Republicans control of the House, Senate and White House, and there is a real opportunity to achieve comprehensive, pro-growth tax reform. Congress can use this as an opportunity to pair tax reform with spending cuts in order to comply with the rules of budget reconciliation and maximize the economic benefits of tax reform. After all, the federal government has a spending problem, not a revenue problem.

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The Need for Pro-Growth Tax Reform

Background: President Donald Trump, Speaker Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell made it clear before the November 2016 election that pro-growth tax reform would be a major legislative priority for Republicans in 2017 if they were given the chance to govern. Now that the American people gave Republicans control of the House, Senate and White House, there is a real opportunity to achieve comprehensive, pro-growth tax reform. A rewrite of the tax code couldn’t come soon enough. It has been far too long since Congress made major updates to the tax code. In fact, the last major reform of our nation’s tax code was under the Reagan administration in 1986, and every major effort since then has failed. After three decades of no major changes to the tax code and a stagnant economy, the time for tax reform is now.

Problem: Over the past few decades, the U.S. tax code has become a significant obstacle to economic growth, job creation and higher wages for American workers. This is due to a number of reasons.

1.)    Our tax code suppresses business creation, expansion and reinvestment here in America due to high rates, double taxation, and how foreign profits are taxed. At an average of 39.1 percent, the U.S. corporate tax rate is the highest in the industrialized world making Americans companies uncompetitive with their foreign counterparts. Small businesses, who mostly file taxes through the individual income tax code as pass-through entities, also have a difficult time competing as they experience an average top marginal income tax rate of 47.2 percent. High tax rates encourage businesses to raise prices, decrease wages for workers, or even leave the country altogether.

If this wasn’t enough, the tax code inherently punishes saving and investment, the lifeblood of economic growth. Income that is saved or invested is often taxed two, three, or more times. The same dollar can be hit by individual income taxes, again by the corporate income tax, and yet again by the capital gains and dividends tax. After all this, before your family can inherit your small business or farm, the government levies a final death tax. These forms of double taxation discourage saving and investment, the most essential components of economic growth.

In addition, the U.S. is one of a very few countries that operate under a worldwide tax system rather than a territorial one. This means domestic companies are double taxed on profits they earn overseas – once by the foreign country they earn profits in, and once again when they bring those profits back to the U.S. This system encourages domestic companies to keep their profits out of the country, preventing more than $2.6 trillion in profit from being reinvested here at home.

2.)    Our tax code is far too complex for the average citizen. In 1913, the tax code was a reasonable 400 pages long, but by 2013 it grew to over 74,000 pages. Americans spend nearly 9 billion hours complying with the tax code every year costing our economy over $400 billion in foregone economic growth. The complexity of the tax code allows individuals and businesses with the best lawyers and accountants to game the system and pay the least amount of taxes possible.

3.)    Our tax system is full of cronyism that allows a few well-connected actors to game the system over hard-working taxpayers. The combination of tax credits, deductions and carve outs littered throughout the tax code due to special interest lobbying allow the most powerful and established individuals and businesses to pay low taxes while suppressing their competition.

Solution: Congress must pass comprehensive, pro-growth tax reform that lowers rates for individuals and businesses, simplifies the tax code, ends cronyism, and encourages domestic business creation, expansion, and investment. To do this, tax reform should include the following principles:

1.)    Lower and simplify individual tax rates: This can be accomplished by increasing the standard deduction for low-income earners and lowering rates for high-income earners and small businesses that use the individual code. The current standard deduction, which is the fixed amount of income not taxable, is $6,350 for an individual and $12,700 for a married couple. Lowering and simplifying rates will allow hard-working taxpayers to keep more of their money while encouraging small business owners to expand their companies and create more jobs.

2.)    Lower the corporate tax rate: Taxes on businesses should be cut as much as possible to encourage job creation and higher wages for workers who end up paying more than 70 percent of all business taxes through lower wages. The federal corporate tax rate is 35 percent plus the state corporate income tax rate. The average U.S. combined federal and state rate is the highest among developed countries and is making American companies uncompetitive.

3.)    Permit tax free entrepreneurship: Allow all businesses to deduct the full cost of capital investments from their taxable income, replacing the current system of depreciation, a convoluted multi-year accounting system that only allows a partial deduction. Full expensing would encourage new business investment, job creation and wage growth.

4.)    Establish a territorial tax system: A territorial tax system only taxes U.S. companies on the profits they earn in America. This will encourage foreign business investment here in America and help bring back more than $2.6 trillion in profits currently locked out of the U.S. by our broken and outdated tax system.

5.)    End cronyism: This includes all the special interest handouts, tax credits, deductions, and exemptions in exchange for lower tax rates across the board. For businesses this includes getting rid of tax subsidies to green energy, special economic development zones, nuclear power, and every other preference in the tax code. For individuals, tax reform should remove as many special deductions and exemptions as possible, including the state and local tax deduction which subsidizes high tax states at the expense of fiscally responsible states. Removing tax preferences must be paired with lower rates, so average Americans receive a tax cut.

According to recent analysis, this kind of pro-growth tax reform has the potential to grow the economy by 10 percent over the next 10 years and increase the average American family’s wages by more than 7 percent or about $4,000 for someone earning $50,000 a year.

Conclusion: In order to bypass a Democrat-led filibuster in the Senate, Republicans intend to use a powerful tool called budget reconciliation to pass tax reform. While this path allows Congress to fast-track tax reform in the Senate, it prohibits the consideration of legislation that increases the federal deficit outside the adopted budget window. Although somewhat restrictive, Congress can use this as an opportunity to pair tax reform with spending cuts in order to comply with the rules of budget reconciliation and maximize the economic benefits of tax reform. After all, the federal government has a spending problem, not a revenue problem. Federal revenues are expected to rise to 20 percent of the economy by 2021, a dangerous level seen only once since the end of World War II. Reducing federal spending alongside tax reform would ensure tax reform is permanent; whereas simply cutting taxes through the budget reconciliation process would result in the expiration of those tax cuts in 10 years. Regardless of the approach taken, by enacting pro-growth tax reform Republicans can fulfill their promise to create jobs, increase wages, and restore our stagnant economy back to sustainable long-term growth.

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No More Obamacare Bailouts

Background: In an effort to win the support of health insurance companies during the debate over Obamacare in 2009, three health insurer bailout provisions were written into the bill to compensate health insurance companies for insuring high-cost consumers in the Obamacare state exchanges. These three bailout provisions include risk corridors, reinsurance and cost-sharing reduction subsidies. Combined, these could cost taxpayers $170 billion over the next decade. The risk corridor and reinsurance provisions expired last year, while cost-sharing reduction subsidies are currently in flux.

Cost-Sharing Reduction Subsidies: This third Obamacare bailout provision uses taxpayer dollars to subsidize health insurance deductibles and co-payments for plans bought by households with incomes less than 250 percent of the federal poverty line. While Obamacare intended to create cost-sharing reduction subsidies, the bill text does not include language funding the subsidies. However, the Obama administration ignored the plain reading of the law and paid for the subsidies using taxpayer dollars to the tune of nearly $14 billion.

In response, Congress sued the Obama administration in November of 2014 in U.S. House of Representatives v. Burwell. The House argued that the White House violated its Constitutional authority by spending money not authorized by Congress. In May of 2016, federal district court Judge Rosemary Collyer ruled in favor of the House, but the Obama administration appealed the decision to the D.C. Circuit Court. Now with President Trump in the White House, the last Obamacare bailout can be eliminated permanently. All President Trump has to do is accept the court’s initial ruling and stop paying the subsidies.

Problem: Since the November 2016 elections, congressional Republicans worked on legislation to repeal and replace parts of Obamacare. The House narrowly passed the American Health Care Act (AHCA) on May 4th, 2017 by a vote of 217 to 213, but Senate Republicans failed to pass their version of the bill called the Better Care Reconciliation Act (BCRA) or even a scaled down version of Obamacare repeal called the “Skinny Repeal” bill. The latter failed when moderate Republicans refused to allow the bill to proceed to a conference committee where revised legislation could have been crafted and voted on.

Instead of repealing and replacing Obamacare, moderate Republicans are now working with Democrats to appropriate the Obamacare cost-sharing reduction subsidies to bail out insurance companies and prop up Obamacare. Senator Lamar Alexander (R-Tenn.) announced the Help, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee that he chairs would hold a hearing in early September “on the actions Congress should take to stabilize and strengthen [Obamacare’s] individual health insurance market, so that Americans will be able to buy insurance at affordable prices in the year 2018.”

Ed Haislmaier, an expert in health care policy and markets at The Heritage Foundation, explains the continuation of the cost-sharing reduction subsidies “will not help stabilize the broader individual market because the cost-sharing reductions apply only to plans purchased through the Obamacare exchanges.”

Solution: Under Obamacare, average individual market premiums more than doubled while health insurance companies fled the marketplace leaving 70 percent of U.S. counties with only one or two insurers. This all took place while President Obama was illegally paying out the cost-sharing subsidies. Authorizing the subsidies will do nothing to fix the underlying problems of our broken U.S. health care system spurred on by Obamacare. “What is instead needed to stabilize the unsubsidized market is the removal of Obamacare’s cost-increasing insurance mandates and misguided regulations,” Haislmaier explained. Heritage Action chief executive officer Michael A. Needham recently stated:

“The Senate’s inability to produce 51 votes for a piece of legislation that delivers on a seven-year campaign promise to repeal and replace Obamacare is not license for a bipartisan bailout of a failing law. Networks continue to narrow. Premiums continue to rise. And choice continues to decline. Obamacare is becoming a zombie law, and throwing more taxpayer money at Zombiecare is unacceptable.”

Senate Republicans must go back to the drawing board and find consensus on a plan to repeal and replace Obamacare. Until they do so, President Trump could simply withhold the Obamacare cost-sharing reduction subsidies and demand Republicans fulfill their seven-year old promise to repeal this disastrous law.

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ACTIVISM TOOLKIT: SNAP (Foodstamps)

Last month, Rep. Garret Graves (R-LA) introduced the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Reform Act of 2017 (H.R. 2996). This legislation builds on the success of President Clinton’s 1996 welfare reform that requires able bodied adults to be engaged in some sort of work or work activity in order to receive welfare benefits.

Conservatives should work to get their representatives to be co-sponsors of the SNAP act. The goal is to get as many Republican members on the bill to gain momentum to have a full floor vote on the bill.

Key Talking Points: 

  • The SNAP Reform Act would would help reduce poverty and government dependency, increase self-sufficiency, and restore families by strengthening the effective and popular work requirements for all “able-bodied adults without dependents” or ABAWDs. These include adults between the ages of 18 and 49 who are not disabled and who have no children to support. 
  • 90% of Americans believe that able-bodied adults receiving means-tested welfare assistance should be required to work or prepare for work.
  • From 2000 to 2015, food stamp recipients increased by more than 28 million and cost the government $83.1 billion in FY 2014 alone.
  • In FY 2014, Maine implemented a work requirement for ABAWDs. After the implementation of the work requirement, Maine’s ABAWD caseload dropped by 80 percent within just a few months. If a federal work requirement for ABAWDs were enacted and achieved the same level of success as was achieved in Maine, the reform could save taxpayers up to $9.7 billion annually.

(Make sure to insert the twitter handle of your Representative)

  • @MEMBER co-sponsor #SNAPreform Act of 2017. 90% of Americans support work requirements
  • @MEMBER #SNAPreform would help end government dependence and save taxpayers billions of dollars
  • @MEMBER work requirements for able-bodied adults to receive food stamps is sensible, effective policy #SNAPreform
  • Welfare programs should have the goal of getting people back to work. @MEMBER Americans want #SNAPreform

General Tweets:

  • #SNAPreform would help reduce poverty & government dependency, increase self-sufficiency, and restore families
  • #FoodStamps have grown out-of-control in recent years, both in cost and in the number of recipients. It’s time for #SNAPreform
  • Work requirements have been implemented in Maine, Kansas & Alabama with great success. It’s time for all of America to have #SNAPreform
  • Welfare programs, including food stamps, should be temporary, limited in size and scope, and assist those truly in need. #SNAPreform

These are notes to use when calling your member of Congress. You can find their phone number on the Heritage Action Dashboard.

Hi, I’m [NAME] from [STATE].

The goal of welfare programs should be to increase self-sufficiency and decrease government dependency. However food stamp recipients have increased at an alarming rate, and so has spending for the program. It doubled under Bush and doubled again under Obama. It’s time for reform.

Rep. Garret Graves introduced Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Reform Act of 2017 (H.R. 2996) and I noticed the Congressman is not a co-sponsor. This bill would encourage millions of Americans to get back to work, help end the cycle of poverty for those dependent on government assistance, and save taxpayers billions of dollars. 

Able-bodied adults without dependents should be required to work or prepare for work in exchange for government assistance — and 90% of Americans agree.

Please tell the Congressman to co-sponsor the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Reform Act of 2017. It’s time to reform the food stamp program to ensure it serves those truly in need.

The goal is to get all Republican members on the co-sponsor list, however we are starting with asking Conservative members to add their names.

COMING SOON

Will be all Republican members minus the co-sponsors

Below is a sample letter to the editor. We encourage you to adapt and personalize the letter below. Heritage Action Regional Coordinators are always here to help edit your letter and get it published.

Congressman X, Support Work for Welfare

Over the past two decades Congress has let the Food Stamp Program, also known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or SNAP, grow out-of-control.

From 2000 to 2015, the number of food stamp recipients increased from around 17 million to more than 45 million while government spending on the program rose from just over $20 billion to $83 billion! Alarmingly, the most rapidly growing group of Americans receiving food stamps is able-bodied adults without kids.

President Ronald Reagan once said: “We should measure welfare’s success by how many people leave welfare, not by how many are added.” Millions of our fellow adult citizens without children are living off taxpayer dollars without working. It’s time for the party of Reagan to step up and help solve the problem.

Inspired by the success of the 1996 work for welfare reforms, Representative Garret Graves (R-LA) introduced the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Reform Act of 2017 (H.R. 2996). This bill enacts work requirements on able-bodied adults without dependents as a condition to receive food stamp benefits. An overwhelming 90 percent of Americans agree that able-bodied adults receiving means-tested welfare assistance should be required to work or prepare for work.

If passed and signed into law, this legislation would encourage millions of Americans to get back to work, help end the cycle of poverty for those dependent on government assistance, and save taxpayers billions of dollars.

Congressman [X] should support work for welfare reform by cosponsoring the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Reform Act of 2017.

  

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ENLIST Act (H.R. 60) Claims and Responses

In January, Rep. Jeff Denham (R-CA) introduced a bill that would provide legal status to illegal immigrants if they join the military. The Encourage New Legalized Immigrants to Start Training (ENLIST) Act (H.R. 60) would allow “Dreamers” to receive lawful permanent resident (LPR) status in exchange for military service.

While promoted by some of its supporters as a solution to our military preparedness problem, the ENLIST Act is amnesty — little more than a backdoor promise of citizenship for those who came here illegally. The bill would further damage our broken immigration system by putting those in violation of the law ahead of those who want to come to our country legally. It is difficult to argue that such an arrangement advances U.S. national security objectives. Conservatives should oppose the ENLIST Act and fight any effort by Rep. Denham or others to attach the bill to the annual National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) later this year.  

Below are some commonly made claims and straightforward conservative responses:

Claim: The ENLIST Act does not provide backdoor amnesty, only lawful permanent resident status.

Response: Once an illegal immigrant acquires LPR status through this bill, they are eligible to apply for citizenship on an expedited basis and become citizens within months. Heritage Foundation Senior Legal Fellow Charles Stimson explains:

“[S]ections 328 and 329 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) allow LPRs to apply for expedited naturalization either after one year of military service or after one day of military hostilities, respectively. Thus, if the ENLIST Act were passed in its current form, illegal immigrants who signed up for military service would obtain LPR status immediately and, after one day of service during conflict, could apply for expedited citizenship. That process takes only a matter of months.”

Claim: Earning legal status by serving in the military is not amnesty.

Response: The ENLIST Act turns the notion of an all-volunteer military on its head. Wade Miller, a Marine combat veteran and South Central Regional Coordinator for Heritage Action, explains it would “undermine the important social narrative that allows our all-volunteer military to thrive, namely that service is a benefit, as opposed to a punishment.” Miller continues:  

“It is a privilege to serve in America’s all volunteer force, and that service instills some of the most valuable virtues a citizen could hope for in a Republic. Military service also builds within one the vital moral warrior ethos that every peaceful society must maintain. The United States government also spends significant amounts of money to impart enduring skills on military servicemen and women. The financial compensation for my time in the military pales in comparison to the betterment of my character that military service and combat experience gave me.

“In proposing the exchange of amnesty for military service, politicians not only create the wrong incentives for military service and potentially expose security risks, they also undermine the military’s service-oriented ethos.”

Claim: The ENLIST Act does nothing to incentivize more illegal immigrants to come to the United States.

Response: While the current version of the bill only applies to those who were brought to the U.S. illegally as children prior to 2012, it suggests the Federal Government is not serious about enforcing its immigration laws and makes similar legislation in the future more likely to pass. Congress should fix our broken immigration system and enforce the law, not pass one-off legislation like the ENLIST Act that exacerbate the problems.

Claim: The ENLIST Act does not harm U.S. national security objectives.

Response: This bill does nothing to advance U.S. national security objectives. Instead, it undermines the military by unnecessarily dragging the controversial immigration debate into the military and the brave men and women who serve it. Based on the experience involving the temporary amnesty that President Obama instituted through executive fiat known as Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), Stimson suggests vetting could also be problematic:

“This program, however, has not met its already modest requirements. Specifically, DACA recipients are supposed to pass a background check, but after just a couple of months, DHS began conducting “lean and lite” background checks, urging employees to accept all DACA recipients, explicitly waiving rules regarding proof of identity, and even stopping background checks altogether.”

Claim: The ENLIST Act helps our military preparedness.

Response: It is true that the U.S. military is experiencing a more challenging recruiting environment, but the answer is not a backdoor amnesty program that itself raises national security challenges. Increasing the pool of potential applicants to illegal immigrants is a short-sighted answer to the ongoing readiness issue the military faces. Congress should instead focus its efforts on adequately funding the military to address readiness issues.

Claim: President Trump wants Congress to pass the ENLIST Act to help improve our military readiness.

Response: Legislation is unnecessary. Section 329 (8 U.S.C. 1440) gives the president the authority to provide the same citizenship to aliens who have served in the military during “armed conflict with a hostile foreign force.” Thus, when we need people during times of war, the president can use this provision to attract non-citizens (legal and illegal) into the military.

Claim: The ENLIST Act is consistent with long standing military policy that rewards foreign nationals with citizenship if they serve in the military.    

Response: Historically, U.S. military policy has rewarded legal immigrants with citizenship for serving in the armed forces, not illegal immigrants as clearly laid out in Sections 328 and 329 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). The U.S. has and continues to welcome foreigners throughout the world who desire to come to our shores legally; especially those who want to serve in the military. The ENLIST Act violates generous U.S. immigration laws by putting those who violated the law ahead of those who are waiting in line to come to the country legally.   

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